The shape of the ocean floor, its bathymetry, is largely a result of a process called plate tectonics. Where plates are pulled away (diverge) from each other molten magma flows upward between the plates forming mid-ocean ridges, underwater volcanoes, hydrothermal vents, and new ocean floor crust.
Oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of a tectonic plate. It is composed of the upper oceanic crust, with pillow lavas and a dike complex, and the lower oceanic crust, composed of troctolite, gabbro and ultramafic cumulates. The crust overlies the solidified and uppermost layer of the mantle.
Beside above, what are 4 types of ocean floor? It labels the parts such as: abyssal plain, continental slope, continental shelf, trenches, mid-ocean
Likewise, people ask, where is the ocean floor created?
Mid-ocean ridges are part of chain of mountains some 84,000 km long. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is the longest mountain chain on Earth. These ridges are spreading centers or divergent plate boundaries where the upwelling of magma from the mantle creates new ocean floor.
How are seafloor features formed?
Molten rock material wells up from the underlying mantle into the gap between the diverging plates and solidifies into oceanic crust, thereby creating new ocean floor. At the deep-sea trenches, two plates converge, with one plate sliding down under the other into the mantle where it is melted.
What is a black smoker?
A black smoker is a kind of hydrothermal vent that can be found on the ocean floor. It is a crack in the planet’s surface from which geothermally heated water comes out. Hydrothermal vents are commonly found near volcanically active places, areas where tectonic plates are moving apart, ocean basins, and hotspots.
What is underneath the ocean floor?
The ocean floor is called the abyssal plain. Below the ocean floor, there are a few small deeper areas called ocean trenches. Features rising up from the ocean floor include seamounts, volcanic islands and the mid-oceanic ridges and rises.
What covers the ocean floor?
The abyssal plain is the flat area of the ocean floor. It is covered with sand, mud, and plant and animal remains. Located on this flat plain are undersea mountains called seamounts that are formed by erupting volcanoes.
How thick is the ocean floor?
Oceanic crust is about 6 km (4 miles) thick. It is composed of several layers, not including the overlying sediment. The topmost layer, about 500 metres (1,650 feet) thick, includes lavas made of basalt (that is, rock material consisting largely of plagioclase [feldspar] and pyroxene).
How thick is the crust?
The Earth’s Crust is like the skin of an apple. It is very thin in comparison to the other three layers. The crust is only about 3-5 miles (8 kilometers) thick under the oceans( oceanic crust ) and about 25 miles (32 kilometers) thick under the continents ( continental crust ).
What is the deepest ocean?
What color is the ocean floor?
The medium brown color on the continental slope is from pure mud without sand or shells. Generally the darker the sediment, the finer the grainsize and the lighter the sediment, the coraser in grain size.
Is the ocean floor flat?
The oceans’ floors are not a flat, sandy expanse – they are every bit as varied as the landscapes above water, with plunging valleys and huge mountains.
What are the main parts of the ocean floor?
Features of the ocean floor include the continental shelf and slope, abyssal plain, trenches, seamounts, and the mid-ocean ridge.
How deep the ocean is?
The average depth of the ocean is about 12,100 feet . The deepest part of the ocean is called the Challenger Deep and is located beneath the western Pacific Ocean in the southern end of the Mariana Trench, which runs several hundred kilometers southwest of the U.S. territorial island of Guam.
What boundaries destroy sea floor?
The seafloor is destroyed at a COnvergent Boundary.
What does the ocean floor look like?
From land, the ocean all looks the same. It’s flat, blue, and honestly, it’s kind of boring. The bottom of the ocean is called the ocean floor. Just like the land above the surface, the ocean floor has mountains, volcanoes, deep trenches, and plants and animals.
What discovered the ocean floor?
Hess in 1960. On the basis of Tharp’s efforts and other new discoveries about the deep-ocean floor, Hess postulated that molten material from Earth’s mantle continuously wells up along the crests of the mid-ocean ridges that wind for nearly 80,000 km (50,000 miles) through all the world’s oceans.
How old is the ocean floor?
In essence, oceanic plates are more susceptible to subduction as they get older. Because of this correlation between age and subduction potential, very little ocean floor is older than 125 million years and almost none of it is older than 200 million years.