In other words, God allows suffering so that human souls might grow or develop towards maturation. For Hick, God is ultimately responsible for pain and suffering, but such things are not truly bad. However, in the after-life, Hick asserts that “God will eventually succeed in His purpose of winning all men to Himself.”
John Hick (1922—2012) As a young law student, Hick underwent a strong religious experience that led him to accept evangelical Christianity and to change his career direction to theology and philosophy. This experience would prove not only life-altering but also important for his subsequent philosophical views.
One may also ask, what does Hick mean by salvation? Hick says, “If we define salvation as being forgiven and accepted by God because of Jesus’ death on the cross, then it becomes a tautology that Christianity alone knows and is able to preach the source of salvation.
Subsequently, question is, what is the theodicy based on free will?
Abstract. The Free Will Theodicy (FWT) attempts to defeat the Argument from Evil by claiming that the suffering of the innocent (SOI) is justified by the existence of free will (FW).
What is the free will defense in philosophy?
Alvin Plantinga’s free–will defense is a logical argument developed by the American analytic philosopher Alvin Plantinga and published in its final version in his 1977 book God, Freedom, and Evil. Plantinga’s argument is a defense against the logical problem of evil as formulated by the philosopher J.
What is the difference between the logical problem of evil and the evidential problem of evil?
The logical form of the argument tries to show a logical impossibility in the coexistence of God and evil, while the evidential form tries to show that given the evil in the world, it is improbable that there is an omnipotent, omniscient, and wholly good God.
What is the soul making process?
To achieve this likeness of God, humans must be refined and developed. The theodicy proposes that evil and suffering exists in the world because this is the best way for humans to develop. As such, the Irenaean theodicy is sometimes referred to as the “soul-making theodicy”, a phrase taken from the poet John Keats.
What is the difference between moral evil and natural evil?
Natural evil is evil for which “no non-divine agent can be held morally responsible for its occurrence.” Others reject this definition; for example, Christian theologians argue that natural evil is the indirect result of original sin just as moral evils are, though moral evil is “caused by human activity” directly.
What is pluralism in religion mean?
Religious pluralism is an attitude or policy regarding the diversity of religious belief systems co-existing in society. It can indicate one or more of the following: As a term for the condition of harmonious co-existence between adherents of different religions or religious denominations.
What is a theodicy easy definition?
As defined by Alvin Plantinga, theodicy is the “answer to the question of why God permits evil”. Theodicy is defined as a theological construct that attempts to vindicate God in response to the evidential problem of evil that seems inconsistent with the existence of an omnipotent and omnibenevolent deity.
What does John Hick say about the need for evil and suffering?
John Hick, “Allowing for Evil” Abstract: Hick argues that moral evil is a result of the mystery of free will. He believes the occurrence of nonmoral evil in the world is a necessary condition for the ethics of choice and the process of soul-making.
What did John Hick believe?
This, I (Hick) believe, is the true Christian doctrine of the incarnation.” Hick believes that a metaphorical view of the incarnation avoids the need for faulty Christian paradoxes such as the duality of Christ (fully God and fully human) and even the Trinity (God is simultaneously one and three).
What is epistemic distance?
Simply put, epistemic distance can be taken to mean as a distance in knowledge or awareness. In this religious hypothesis, the world would remain “religiously ambiguous”, that is, there is no conclusive evidence for or against the existence of God. People are left with a choice.
What is the study of evil called?
In theology, ponerology (from Greek poneros, “evil”) is a study of evil. Major subdivisions of the study are the nature of evil, the origin of evil, and evil in relation to the Divine Government.
What is the cause of evil and suffering?
Evil is a cause of human suffering. There are two types of evil: moral evil – the acts of humans which are considered to be morally wrong, eg murder and theft. natural evil – natural disasters, eg earthquakes or tsunamis, which humans have no control over.
How can God be all good and powerful?
Thus if, for simplicity, we focus on a conception of God as all-powerful, all-knowing, and perfectly good, one very concise way of formulating such an argument is as follows: If God exists, then God is omnipotent, omniscient, and morally perfect. If God is omnipotent, then God has the power to eliminate all evil.
What does moral evil mean?
Moral evil is any morally negative event caused by the intentional action or inaction of an agent, such as a person. An example of a moral evil might be murder, or any other evil event for which someone can be held responsible or culpable.
What is the evidential problem of evil?
The evidential problem of evil is the problem of determining whether and, if so, to what extent the existence of evil (or certain instances, kinds, quantities, or distributions of evil) constitutes evidence against the existence of God, that is to say, a being perfect in power, knowledge and goodness.
What is the point of Pascal’s wager?
Pascal’s wager is an argument in philosophy presented by the seventeenth-century French philosopher, mathematician and physicist, Blaise Pascal (1623–1662). It posits that humans bet with their lives that God either exists or does not.